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Home Suelo pélvico Embarazo y parto ¿Para qué sirve un plan de parto?

¿Para qué sirve un plan de parto?

Embarazo y parto


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Si estás embarazada –especialmente te encuentras a punto de dar a luz–, seguro que has oído hablar del plan de parto. Te contamos qué es y para qué sirve.


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Desde aquella época en que las mujeres parían en sus casas acompañadas solo por las comadronas o matronas hasta la actualidad, la medicina ha evolucionado mucho. De hecho, a principios del siglo XX, y gracias a los avances en asepsia –eliminación de gérmenes–, la mortalidad materna descendió de un 85% a un 0,5%.

Sin embargo, esos progresos se vieron acompañados de una excesiva «medicalización» del parto, hasta llegar al punto de deshumanizarlo. En los años 50-60, la mujer que acudía al hospital vivía un parto sin acompañamiento familiar, y, tras nacer, el bebé era trasladado al conocido «nido». Entonces, la comunicación y la empatía médico-paciente prácticamente no existían. De esta manera, contrastaba el gran avance y descenso de la mortalidad maternofetal con el excesivo intervencionismo en partos de curso espontáneamente normal.

El plan de parto

Como consecuencia de esto, surge en los años 80 el denominado «plan de parto escrito«, donde la mujer empezó a expresar sus deseos y expectativas sobre el proceso del parto. En ocasiones ha generado polémica entre los profesionales sanitarios y las pacientes, debido a discrepancias en cuanto a qué medidas son innecesarias, inseguras, o éticamente inapropiadas, sobre todo de cara a humanizar el proceso y de salvaguardar el bienestar de madre e hijo.

plan-parto-ministerio-sanidad

(Modelo de plan de parto del Ministerio de Sanidad, Política Social e Igualdad )

En este sentido, la OMS elaboró unas recomendaciones que hoy en día son respetadas por la mayoría de centros, así como la administración de analgoanestesia según el deseo materno, la elección de posición en el parto, el amamantamiento precoz o la promoción del acto piel con piel, entre otros.

Pero lo más destacable es la necesidad de crear unidades de atención obstétrica, donde no solo se dé importancia a los avances tecnológicos, sino también a los aspectos emocionales y psicológicos del nacimiento.

En definitiva, siempre y cuando no existan factores de riesgo o situaciones médicas que obliguen a una medicalización del parto, todo lo que sea informar, facilitar la comprensión del proceso y hacer partícipe a la mujer en determinadas decisiones, repercutirá en una actitud positiva de la paciente el día del parto y contribuirá a que gestione emocionalmente mejor la experiencia.

En resumen, es necesario un plan de parto que salvaguarde el bienestar de madre e hijo y fomente la calidad de la experiencia del nacimiento en lo físico, emocional y sociocultural.

Fuente: Gema García Gálvez, ginecóloga.

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