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Tratamiento de la incontinencia anal

Suelo pélvico y salud


tratamiento incontinencia fecal
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La prevención en el embarazo y en el parto es muy importante para evitar lesiones que provoquen la salida de gases y heces. Pero si estas ocurren, la rehabilitación, con ejercicios de fortalecimiento del suelo pélvico, y la electroestimulación dan buenos resultados.


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Los partos, sobre todo si son complicados por desgarros o episiotomías, son la mayoría de las veces causa directa de lesiones en los músculos y nervios de la parte final del intestino. Cuando estas estructuras se dañan, no son capaces de contraerse correctamente y sujetar la materia fecal, provocando la salida de gases, de heces o ambas cosas. Las mujeres que padecen este problema ven cómo su calidad de vida se reduce drásticamente: se sienten vulnerables, sin control de su cuerpo y a menudo se aíslan y deprimen.

Prevenir el escape de gases y heces

El correcto seguimiento del embarazo y del parto son, una vez más, la clave. ¿Cómo?

  • Con medidas de prevención orientadas a fortalecer el suelo pélvico: como vigilar el sobrepeso, evitar el estreñimiento o realizar masajes perineales.
  • Con medidas de prevención obstétricas correctas en el momento del parto: Evitar que se produzca la rotura fibrilar del esfínter anal o la denervación de la musculatura durante el expulsivo del bebé.

Si se ha producido un daño irremediable, hay que identificarlo y reconstruirlo en el mismo paritorio. Ese es el momento indicado para realizar una sutura del esfínter anal.

Tratamientos

  • El tratamiento conservador, con ejercicios de rehabilitación del suelo pélvico y/o electroestimulación (biofeedback), hará que mejore hasta un 70% de los casos.
  • La cirugía no se aconseja, por poco eficaz, al 30% restante de mujeres, cuyo esfínter no funciona adecuadamente a pesar de que esté intacto o bien reparado. Para ellas existe una innovadora técnica que da buenos resultados: la neuromodulación sacra.

Si sientes que no puedes controlar tus gases o tienes escapes de heces, te recomendamos que acudas a un especialista para que valore cuál es el estado de tu suelo pélvico. En función de tu caso, el ginecólogo o el fisioterapeuta de suelo pélvico te indicará cuál es el tratamiento más apropiado para tu caso.

Fuente: Dra. Gema García Gálvez

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